Mechanobiology June 26th - June 2nd 2016

Mechanobiology: June 26th  - June 2nd 2016

The subapical actin cytoskeleton regulates secretion and membrane retrieval in pancreatic acinar cells
K.M. Valentijn, F.D. Gumkowski, J.D. Jamieson

Summary

We examined the effects of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D (cytoD) on basal and carbamylcholine-stimulated exocytosis and on compensatory membrane retrieval in pancreatic acinar cells. Although the involvement of actin in exocytosis is reasonably well established, its role in these coupled processes is not understood. Our findings suggested that cytoD inhibited stimulated secretion of amylase. However, morphometry revealed that exocytosis had occurred: the number of zymogen granules decreased, the size of the lumen increased, and large vacuolar structures continuous with the lumen formed into which amylase accumulated. Large amounts of amylase were released to the medium on removal of secretagogue and cytoD, suggesting that the subapical actin network provides contractile forces that expel the lumenal contents. Strikingly, we observed that at the apical pole of the cells where exocytosis occurred, cytoD induced an accumulation of membrane invaginations into a vastly enlarged apical membrane. These pits were often surrounded by a clathrin-like coat. Concomitantly, AP-2-, clathrin-, dynamin- and caveolin-like immunoreactivity concentrated around the enlarged lumina, suggesting that incorporation of zymogen granule membrane into the apical plasma membrane triggered the recruitment of these proteins. After wash out of cytoD and carbamylcholine and reformation of the subapical actin cytoskeleton, the coated invaginations largely disappeared in association with a reduction in lumenal size, and relocation of clathrin, AP-2, dynamin and caveolin into the cell. We suggest that the actin terminal web also controls compensatory membrane retrieval following exocytosis.