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Reprogramming nuclei: insights from cloning, nuclear transfer and heterokaryons
N. Kikyo, A.P. Wolffe


Mammals and amphibians can be cloned following the transfer of embryonic nuclei into enucleated eggs or oocytes. As nuclear functions become more specialized in the differentiated cells of an adult, successful cloning using these nuclei as donors becomes more difficult. Differentiation involves the assembly of specialized forms of repressive chromatin including linker histones, Polycomb group proteins and methyl-CpG-binding proteins. These structures compartmentalize chromatin into functional domains and maintain the stability of the differentiated state through successive cell divisions. Efficient cloning requires the erasure of these structures. The erasure can be accomplished through use of molecular chaperones and enzymatic activities present in the oocyte, egg or zygote. We discuss the mechanisms involved in reprogramming nuclei after nuclear transfer and compare them with those that occur during remodeling of somatic nuclei after heterokaryon formation. Finally we discuss how one might alter the properties of adult nuclei to improve the efficiency of cloning.