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Plastid tubules of higher plants are tissue-specific and developmentally regulated
R.H. Kohler, M.R. Hanson


Green fluorescent stroma filled tubules (stromules) emanating from the plastid surface were observed in transgenic plants containing plastid-localized green fluorescent protein (GFP). These transgenic tobacco plants were further investigated by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) to identify developmental and/or cell type specific differences in the abundance and appearance of stromules and of plastids. Stromules are rarely seen on chlorophyll-containing plastids in cell types such as trichomes, guard cells or mesophyll cells of leaves. In contrast, they are abundant in tissues that contain chlorophyll-free plastids, such as petal and root. The morphology of plastids in roots and petals is highly dynamic, and plastids are often elongated and irregular. The shapes, size, and position of plastids vary in particular developmental zones of the root. Furthermore, suspension cells of tobacco exhibit stromules on virtually every plastid with two major forms of appearance. The majority of cells show a novel striking ‘octopus- or millipede-like’ structure with plastid bodies clustered around the nucleus and with long thin stromules of up to at least 40 (micro)m length stretching into distant areas of the cell. The remaining cells have plastid bodies distributed throughout the cell with short stromules. Photobleaching experiments indicated that GFP can flow through stromules and that the technique can be used to distinguish interconnected plastids from independent plastids.