Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process. The basic mechanisms involved in expression of genes have been characterized at the molecular level. A major challenge is now to uncover how transcription, RNA processing and RNA export are organized within the cell nucleus, how these processes are coordinated with each other and how nuclear architecture influences gene expression and regulation. A significant contribution has come from cell biological approaches, which combine molecular techniques with microscopy methods. These studies have revealed that the mammalian cell nucleus is a complex but highly organized organelle, which contains numerous subcompartments. I discuss here how two essential nuclear processes - transcription and pre-mRNA splicing - are spatially organized and coordinated in vivo, and how this organization might contribute to the control of gene expression. The dynamic nature of nuclear proteins and compartments indicates a high degree of plasticity in the cellular organization of nuclear functions. The cellular organization of transcription and splicing suggest that the morphology of nuclear compartments is largely determined by the activities of the nucleus.
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