Myosin-X is the founding member of a novel class of unconventional myosins characterized by a tail domain containing multiple pleckstrin homology domains. We report here the full-length cDNA sequences of human and bovine myosin-X as well as the first characterization of this protein's distribution and biochemical properties. The 235 kDa myosin-X contains a head domain with <45% protein sequence identity to other myosins, three IQ motifs, and a predicted stalk of coiled coil. Like several other unconventional myosins and a plant kinesin, myosin-X contains both a myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domain and a FERM (band 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin) domain. The unique tail domain also includes three pleckstrin homology domains, which have been implicated in phosphatidylinositol phospholipid signaling, and three PEST sites, which may allow cleavage of the myosin tail. Most intriguingly, myosin-X in cultured cells is present at the edges of lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, and the tips of filopodial actin bundles. The tail domain structure, biochemical features, and localization of myosin-X suggest that this novel unconventional myosin plays a role in regions of dynamic actin.
- © 2000 by Company of Biologists