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Summary

The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium colonizes its animal hosts by inducing its internalization into intestinal epithelial cells. This process requires reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of the apical plasma membrane into elaborate membrane ruffles that engulf the bacteria. Members of the Ρ family of small GTPases are critical regulators of actin structure, and in nonpolarized cells, the GTPase Cdc42 has been shown to modulate Salmonella entry. Because the actin architecture of epithelial cells is organized differently from that of nonpolarized cells, we examined the role of two ‘Rgr; family GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1, in invasion of polarized monolayers of MDCK cells by S. typhimurium. Surprisingly, we found that endogenous Rac1, but not Cdc42, was activated during bacterial entry at the apical pole, and that this activation required the bacterial effector protein SopE. Furthermore, expression of dominant inhibitory Rac1 but not Cdc42 significantly inhibited apical internalization of Salmonella, indicating that Rac1 activation is integral to the bacterial entry process. In contrast, during basolateral internalization, both Cdc42 and Rac1 were activated; however, neither GTPase was required for entry. These findings, which differ significantly from previous observations in nonpolarized cells, indicate that the host cell signaling pathways activated by bacterial pathogens may vary with cell type, and in epithelial tissues may further differ between plasma membrane domains.