Table of Contents
IN THIS ISSUE
- Autophagy in adhesion and migration
Summary: Discussion of emerging roles for selective autophagy in adhesion and migration through regulation of focal adhesion turnover, cellular tension and integrin trafficking.
- The changing view of eukaryogenesis – fossils, cells, lineages and how they all come together
Summary: Eukaryogenesis, the emergence of eukaryotic cells, represents a pivotal evolutionary event. Advances in paleogeology, phylogenetics, cell biology and microbial diversity provide new insights into aspects of eukaryogenesis.
- Desmin and αB-crystallin interplay in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and cardiomyocyte survival
Highlighted Article: Both desmin and its partner chaperone αB-crystallin associate with mitochondria–sarcoplasmic-reticulum contact sites (MAMs), stabilizing MICOS super-complexes, and thus contributing to proper mitochondrial cristae structure–function.
- C. elegans midbodies are released, phagocytosed and undergo LC3-dependent degradation independent of macroautophagy
Summary: Autophagy proteins are required for the degradation of midbodies. In C. elegans, Atg8/LC3-family proteins act during phagosome maturation rather than during macroautophagy.
- Drosophila sensory cilia lacking MKS proteins exhibit striking defects in development but only subtle defects in adults
Highlighted Article: An analysis of Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS) fly mutants reveals that cilium structure is perturbed during development, but that cilia are largely structurally and functionally normal by adulthood.
- Triadin and CLIMP-63 form a link between triads and microtubules in muscle cells
Summary: CLIMP-63 is associated with the Ca2+ release complex of skeletal muscles through its interaction with triadin, and is involved in the shaping of triads and in the guidance of microtubules.
- Direct interaction between exocyst and Wave complexes promotes cell protrusions and motility
Highlighted Article: A direct link between exocyst and Wave complexes is revealed, providing new mechanistic insight into the spatio-temporal coordination between membrane trafficking and actin polymerization.
- Cdc48 and Ubx1 participate in a pathway associated with the inner nuclear membrane that governs Asi1 degradation
Summary: The inner nuclear membrane (INM) E3 ubiquitin ligase component Asi1 is ubiquitylated, removed from the membrane and targeted to nuclear proteasomes through a new INM-associated degradation pathway.
- Atg9A trafficking through the recycling endosomes is required for autophagosome formation
- Prolyl endopeptidase is involved in the degradation of neural cell adhesion molecules in vitro
Summary: NCAM and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) are important regulators of brain plasticity. We demonstrate that prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is involved in the regulation of NCAM and PSA-NCAM.
- Mature lipid droplets are accessible to ER luminal proteins
Highlighted Article: Lipid droplets are accessible to ER luminal proteins, suggesting that lipid droplets form a specialized domain within the ER membrane that can be recognized from both the cytosolic and the luminal side.
- DUX4 induces a transcriptome more characteristic of a less-differentiated cell state and inhibits myogenesis
Summary: DUX4 underlies pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. DUX4 acts mainly as a transcriptional activator that inhibits myogenesis by orchestrating a gene expression profile representative of a more stem-cell-like state.
- Sortilin regulates sorting and secretion of Sonic hedgehog
- The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair
Summary: Here, we identify a role for post-translational modification ADP-ribosylation in the response to DNA interstrand crosslinks in the model Dictyostelium.
- Endo-lysosomal TRP mucolipin-1 channels trigger global ER Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx
Summary: The endolysosomal ion channel TRP mucolipin 1 was thought to mediate local Ca2+ signals. However, as reported here, it can also mediate global elevations in Ca2+.
- Inhibition of cargo export at ER exit sites and the trans-Golgi network by the secretion inhibitor FLI-06
Summary: The secretion inhibitor FLI-06 inhibits recruitment of cargo into ERES by a mechanism upstream of Sar1 and COPII, and also blocks exit from the trans-Golgi network.
- Characterization of prion protein function by focal neurite stimulation
Summary: By using a novel approach to stimulate and guide the growth cones of hippocampal neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution, we reveal a function for the soluble form of PrP to promote fast neurite outgrowth.
- Essential role of the Dishevelled DEP domain in a Wnt-dependent human-cell-based complementation assay
Summary: A physiological complementation assay in Dishevelled null-mutant human cells establishes an essential function of the DEP domain of Dishevelled in its binding to Frizzled for signal transduction to β-catenin.
- Mutant IP3 receptors attenuate store-operated Ca2+ entry by destabilizing STIM–Orai interactions in Drosophila neurons
Summary: In Drosophila neurons, mutant IP3 receptors disrupt store-operated Ca2+ entry by destabilizing interaction of STIM with the Ca2+ channel, Orai. The interactions could coordinate store emptying with Ca2+ entry.
- Neuropilin-1 modulates interferon-γ-stimulated signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells
Summary: This is the first study to define the role of neuropilin-1, a co-receptor of several structurally distinct cytokines, in the IFNγ-induced inflammatory response of endothelial cells in neuroinflammatory diseases.
- A ternary complex comprising transportin1, Rab8 and the ciliary targeting signal directs proteins to ciliary membranes
Summary: Transportin1 and Rab8 can simultaneously bind to the ciliary targeting signal in a guanine-nucleotide-dependent manner. The resulting ternary complex can target a membrane protein to cilia.
- Plant mitochondria contain the protein translocase subunits TatB and TatC
Summary: This paper provides evidence that Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondria contain two subunits of a twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, indicating the presence of an active Tat pathway in plants.
- Exosomes bind to autotaxin and act as a physiological delivery mechanism to stimulate LPA receptor signalling in cells
Summary: Autotaxin, a secreted enzyme that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), binds to exosomes and is thereby targeted to cells in order to deliver LPA and activate cell surface receptors.
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