Table of Contents
IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
- Organelles – understanding noise and heterogeneity in cell biology at an intermediate scale
Summary: This Commentary explores organelle-level heterogeneity as a potential secondary source of cellular noise that contributes to intercellular phenotypic heterogeneity.
- Myosin VI facilitates connexin 43 gap junction accretion
- Dysferlin mediates membrane tubulation and links T-tubule biogenesis to muscular dystrophy
Summary: The dysferlin protein is directly involved in the morphogenesis of the T-tubule system, suggesting a new model for the molecular pathology of dysferlin-dependent muscular dystrophy.
- Defining the dynamin-based ring organizing center on the peroxisome-dividing machinery isolated from Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Highlighted Article: Organelle division is executed by contraction of a dynamin-based ring. Here, for the first time, the organizing center of the dynamin-based ring is identified, termed the dynamin-based ring organizing center (DOC).
- Structural modeling defines transmembrane residues in ADAM17 that are crucial for Rhbdf2–ADAM17-dependent proteolysis
Summary: We uncover interactions between the transmembrane domains of the metalloproteinase ADAM17 and its partner molecule Rhbdf2 as being crucial for the regulation of ADAM17-dependent EGF-receptor and TNFα signaling.
- IFT57 stabilizes the assembled intraflagellar transport complex and mediates transport of motility-related flagellar cargo
Highlighted Article: Intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein IFT57 maintains the pool size of IFT particles for ciliogenesis by stabilizing assembled IFT particle complexes, and is critical for flagellar waveform establishment.
- Vimentin intermediate filaments control actin stress fiber assembly through GEF-H1 and RhoA
Summary: Vimentin intermediate filaments control the activity of RhoA, and consequent stress fiber assembly and contractility by downregulating its guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1.
- Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER–mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology
Highlighted Article: The glycogen-binding protein Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and targeted to ER–mitochondria contact sites. Stbd1 loss- or gain-of-function affects ER–mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology.
- JunB regulates angiogenesis and neurovascular parallel alignment in mouse embryonic skin
Summary: Neurovascular interactions induce JunB expression in EC and activate angiogenesis, and in vivo suppression of JunB attenuates neurovascular alignment.
- Stress-specific differences in assembly and composition of stress granules and related foci
Highlighted Article: Haploid cells were used to study stress-specific differences in the dynamics and composition of stress granule-like foci, the translation-related mechanisms of their assembly and their connection to cell survival.
- Alterations in the balance of tubulin glycylation and glutamylation in photoreceptors leads to retinal degeneration
Summary: The connecting cilia of photoreceptors are post-translationally glycylated and glutamylated. Unbalancing these two modifications invariably leads to retinal degeneration.
- Kon-tiki enhances PS2 integrin adhesion and localizes its ligand, Thrombospondin, in the myotendinous junction
Summary: The Drosophila proteoglycan Kon-tiki/Perdido enhances αPS2βPS integrin adhesion and localizes its ligand, Thrombospondin. This would lead to increased integrin adhesion to the ECM, and consolidation of the muscle–tendon junction.
- Nucleoporins NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20 are required for HCP-4 nuclear import to establish correct centromere assembly
Summary: Nuclear import of HCP-4/CENP-C during prophase is essential for correct sister chromatid resolution in C. elegans. The nucleoporins NPP-13/Nup93, NPP-10C/Nup98-Nup96 and NPP-20/Sec13R are essential for this process.
- IKKα regulates human keratinocyte migration through surveillance of the redox environment
Summary: This study provides a newly identified mechanism by which H2O2-dependent oxidation of the inhibitor of κB kinase α and de-repression of epidermal growth factor promoter activity stimulates keratinocyte migration.
- Vinculin promotes nuclear localization of TAZ to inhibit ECM stiffness-dependent differentiation into adipocytes
Summary: Mechanotrasduction pathways during adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells are mediated by the focal adhesion protein vinculin in a manner that involves regulation of actin organization and TAZ nuclear localization.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
- Facile manipulation of protein localization in fission yeast through binding of GFP-binding protein to GFP
Summary: A set of vectors containing GBP- or GBP–mCherry-coding sequences and variants of inducible nmt1 or constitutive adh1 promoters were constructed. They should allow easier artificial manipulation of protein localization in fission yeast.
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