Table of Contents
IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
- Development and dynamics of cell polarity at a glance
Summary: Cell- and tissue-polarity protein complexes are modular and generate diverse types of polarity, including epithelial, migratory and stem cell polarities, and contribute to cell fate specification.
- New insights into autophagosome–lysosome fusion
Summary: Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of autophagosome–lysosome fusion and discuss the remaining questions of the field.
- Microtubule-associated protein-4 controls nanovesicle dynamics and T cell activation
Summary: Microtubule-associated protein-4 (MAP4) regulates early T cell signaling by controlling microtubule stability and CD3ζ-bearing nanovesicle dynamics. MAP4 also acts by balancing earlier and later T cell activation events.
- Attenuation of N-glycosylation causes polarity and adhesion defects in the C. elegans embryo
Summary: Upon reduction of N-glycosylation, E-cadherin is not efficiently localized in the cell–cell contact site contributing to adhesion defects in the two-cell C. elegans embryo. This phenotype is rescued by concomitant loss of cell polarity.
- The Arabidopsis kinesin-4, FRA1, requires a high level of processive motility to function correctly
Summary: This study shows that the motility of kinesin mutants can differ significantly between in vitro and in vivo conditions and that abundant processive motility is important for the kinesin function of FRA1.
- Non-coding Y RNAs associate with early replicating euchromatin in concordance with the origin recognition complex
Highlighted Article: Non-coding Y RNAs are essential for DNA replication. We show that they associate with euchromatin in a cell cycle-regulated manner in concordance with the origin recognition complex, suggesting a concerted function.
- Error-prone meiotic division and subfertility in mice with oocyte-conditional knockdown of pericentrin
Summary: A unique transgenic mouse model was used to demonstrate that loss of maternal Pericentrin (Pcnt) leads to highly error-prone meiotic division and severely reduced female fertility, with spindle formation becoming reliant on Ran GTPase activity.
- The focal adhesion targeting domain of p130Cas confers a mechanosensing function
- Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA
Summary: Uncouplers activate mitochondrial degradation in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes and prevent clonal expansion of selfish mitochondrial DNA. This effect requires mitochondrial fission and autophagy.
- Oxidized phagosomal NOX2 complex is replenished from lysosomes
Highlighted Article: In human dendritic cells, the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 complex is initially recruited to phagosomes from the plasma membrane, and oxidized NOX2 complex subunits are replenished from a lysosomal pool.
- Super-resolution mapping of scaffold nucleoporins in the nuclear pore complex
Summary: Combination of super-resolution SPEED microscopy and nanobody specific labeling of nucleoporins can be used to map the radial and axial distributions of scaffold proteins in native nuclear pore complexes.
- Mycolactone reveals the substrate-driven complexity of Sec61-dependent transmembrane protein biogenesis
Highlighted Article: The exotoxin mycolactone interferes with the biogenesis of the majority of transmembrane proteins and its actions highlight differences in how distinct classes of these proteins initially engage the Sec61 translocon.
- ErbB1 and ErbB4 generate opposing signals regulating mesenchymal cell proliferation during valvulogenesis
Summary: During valvulogenesis, opposing signals generated by different combinations of ErbB dimers regulate cell proliferation. HB-EGF-activated ErbB4 variant JM-A, which can release its intracellular domain, is required to suppress this proliferation.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
- Localization of phosphorylated connexin 43 using serial section immunogold electron microscopy
Highlighted Article: Here, we show how new 3D electron microscopy techniques can be extended to investigate ultrastructural protein localization in order to advance insight into mechanisms of gap junction internalization.
ARTICLES OF INTEREST IN OUR OTHER JOURNALS