Table 1.

Stresses that activate AMPK

Type of treatment Treatment Primary reference
Respiratory chain inhibitors Antimycin A Witters et al., 1991
Azide Witters et al., 1991
Nitric oxide Almeida et al., 2004
ATP synthase inhibitor Oligomycin Marsin et al., 2000
Mitochondrial uncouplers Dinitrophenol Witters et al., 1991
Over-expression of UCP1 Matejkova et al., 2004
Over-expression of UCP3 Schrauwen et al., 2004
TCA cycle inhibitor Arsenite Corton et al., 1994
Environmental stresses Heat shock Corton et al., 1994
Oxidative stress Choi et al., 2001
Osmotic stress Fryer et al., 2002
Metabolic stresses Ischaemia Kudo et al., 1995
Hypoxia Marsin et al., 2000
Low glucose Salt et al., 1998
Exercise (muscle) Winder and Hardie, 1996
Contraction (muscle) Hutber et al., 1997; Vavvas et al., 1997
Biguanide drugs Metformin Zhou et al., 2001
Phenformin Hawley et al., 2003
Thiazolidinedione drugs Rosiglitazone Fryer et al., 2002
Pioglitazone Saha et al., 2004