Table 1.

Characteristics of leading processes

Treatment Extension speed (μm/hour) Morphological change
EGFP 29.8±10.8 (n=30)
N17-Cdc42 NA Defective formation of polarized process
Par6-NT 18.9±10.1** (n=26) TLP branching
S9A-GSK 16.4±12.6*** (n=26) TLP branching
APCΔCT 21.2±13.8* (n=30) TLP branching
Nocodazole NA Fragmentation of leading process
EB3-GFP NA Random extension of leading process
N17-Rac 1.64±7.86*** (n=28) Suppressed protrusive activity
Rac 9.99±8.26*** (n=16) Multiply branched protrusive structure on TLP
Δp85α PI3K NA Random migration and loss of long leading process
KD-p110γ PI3K 28.4±14.0 (n=28) Reduced size of TLP
PTEN 26.6±11.6 (n=30) Reduced size of TLP
C124A-PTEN 18.3±12.5** (n=26) Increased size of TLP
KD-PAK 29.8±9.82 (n=26) Branching and destabilization of TLP
PAK 12.0±9.05*** (n=26) Enhanced spreading of TLP
Blebbistatin 10.6±12.2*** (n=30) Reduced spreading of TLP
C3 toxin 11.4±15.3*** (n=30) Reduced spreading of TLP
DN-Rho-kinase 17.8±11.6** (n=30) Reduced spreading of TLP
AG1478 7.74±12.0*** (n=29) Suppressed protrusive activity
ErbB4ΔIC 7.17±17.4*** (n=28) Suppressed protrusive activity
  • Mean values obtained from three to four independent experiments are shown ± s.d. Asterisks indicate the value with a statistically significance change over control EGFP cells determined by Student's t-test: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. NA, not applicable because of their loss of directed extension