Table 1.

Functions of APC

Cellular processes Effects by wild-type APC Effects by loss of APC or truncated APC APC domains APC functions Binding proteins References
The canonical Wnt signal transcription Inhibition Activation (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Stimulation of phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin β-catenin, GSK3β, Axin Korinek et al., 1997; Morin et al., 1997
Inhibition Activation (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Export of β-catenin from the nucleus β-catenin Henderson and Fagotto, 2002; Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003
Inhibition Activation (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Keeping β-catenin from the interaction with TCF β-catenin Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003
Inhibition Activation (loss) 15-aa repeats Recruitment of repression complex to the transcriptional machinery CtBP Hamada and Binez, 2004; Sierra et al., 2006
Cell adhesion Stimulation Weaken (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Control of β-catenin distribution between in the nucleus/cytoplasm and the plasma membrane β-catenin Faux et al., 2004; Klingelhofer et al., 2003
Stimulation Weaken (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Increase in E-cadherin levels at the plasma membrane β-catenin Faux et al., 2004
Cell migration Stimulation Stronger stimulation (truncated) Armadillo repeats Activation of Asef1 and Asef2; Activation of Cdc42 Asef1 and Asef2 Hamann et al., 2007; Kawasaki et al., 2003; Kawasaki et al., 2000; Mahmoud et al., 1997; Oshima et al., 1997; Wong et al., 1996
Stimulation Inhibition (loss) Armadillo repeats Recruitment of IQGAP1 and CLIP-170; Formation of a complex with IQGAP1, CLIP-170, and activated Rac1 and Cdc42; Formation of actin meshwork IQGAP1 Watanabe et al., 2004
Stimulation EB1-binding domain Functions downstream of Rho and mDia; Stabilization and polymerization of microtubules EB1 Wen et al., 2004
Chromosomal segregation Proper segregation Mis-segregation (loss) Basic domain Regulation of kinetochore functions Microtubules Dikovskaya et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001
Proper segregation Mis-segregation (loss) Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats Inhibition of apoptosis at the G2/M checkpoint through Wnt signaling β-catenin Aoki et al., 2007; Hadjihannas et al., 2006
Proper segregation Dominant negative (truncated) Not determined Regulation of kinetochore functions Not determined Tighe et al., 2004; Tighe et al., 2001