Table 2.

Studies using APC knockouts or knockdowns

APC genes Models Methods Tissues Main phenotypes Main mechanisms References
APC Knockout mouse Homozygous knockout Embryo Embryonic lethality at 5.5 d.p.c Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Ishikawa et al., 2003; Moser et al., 1995; Oshima et al., 1995
Knockout mouse Conditional homozygous deletion Intestines Defects in cell migration, proliferation and differentiation Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Andreu et al., 2005; Sansom et al., 2004
Knockout mouse Conditional homozygous deletion Immune system Defects in differentiation Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Gounari et al., 2005
Knockout mouse Heterozygous knockout Intestines Formation of numerous polyps resembling FAP polyps Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Fodde et al., 1994; Oshima et al., 1995; Su et al., 1992
Mouse ES cells Homozygous knockout Mouse cultured cells Spindle aberrations; Chromosomal instability Defects in kinetochore functions; Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Aoki et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001
Mouse ES cells Homozygous knockout Mouse cultured cells Defects in differentiation Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Kielman et al., 2002
U2OS cells, HCT116 cells Knockdown using siRNA Human cultured cancer cells Chromosomal instability Deregulated expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; Defects in kinetochore functions; Inhibition of apoptosis Dikovskaya et al., 2007
HeLa cells Knockdown using siRNA Human cultured cancer cells No defects in expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; No notable chromosomal instability Unchanged expression of spindle checkpoint proteins Draviam et al., 2006
SW480 cells, WiDr cells Knockdown using siRNA Human cultured cancer cells Inhibition of cell migration Inhibition of Asef and Rac activities Kawasaki et al., 2003
Vero cells Knockdown using siRNA Monkey cultured cells Inhibition of polarized migration Inhibition of actin meshwork and mislocalization of CLIP1 Watanabe et al., 2005
U2OS cells MEF Knockdown using siRNA and conditional deletion Human and mouse cultured cells Inhibition of cell migration and formation of cellular protrusions Decrease in overall microtubule stability and decreased posttranslationally modified microtubules Kroboth et al., 2007
APC2 No study reported
dAPC1 Drosophila Homozygous knockout Eye Viable; Neuronal degeneration and pigment cell hypertrophy of retina Activation of Wnt signaling pathway Ahmed et al., 1998; Hayashi et al., 1997
dAPC2 Drosophila Homozygous knockout Embryo Embryonic lethality Defects in Wnt signaling pathway McCartney et al., 1999
Homozygous knockout Oocytes Mislocalization of oocytes in egg chambers Defects in cadherin-based adhesion Hamada and Bienz, 2002
dAPC1/dAPC2 Drosophila Homozygous knockout Ovary No defects in cell adhesion, chromosomal segregation or spindle formation No defects in cortical β-catenin localization or E-cadherin; No defects in spindle morphology or spindle orientation McCartney et al., 2006