Table 1.

Genes differentially expressed between metastatic and non-metastatic cell populations

Gene description Gene ontology Relative expression level
Gremlin 1 homolog (Grem1) Cell-cell signalling; embryonic patterning; organ morphogenesis 0.006
PAR-related orphan receptor alpha, Rora_predicted Transcriptional regulation; DNA-dependent signal transduction 0.027
Erythrocyte protein band 4.1-like 3 (Epb41l3) Cell proliferation; cortical actin cytoskeleton; actin organisation 0.028
Ca/CaM-dependent serine protein kinase (Cask) Protein complex assembly; protein phosphorylation; transport 0.031
Hypothetical gene AF152002, LOC290595 0.063
EST, Affymetrix Identifier 1376071_at 0.069
Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2) Protein phosphorylation; cell cycle 0.080
EST, Affymetrix Identifier 1375986_at 0.14
RNase A family 4 (Rnase4) mRNA cleavage 0.15
Similar to CG12279-PA, LOC500420 0.17
Translin-associated factor X (Tsnax) 0.18
A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase (Adamts1) Proteolysis; integrin signalling; cell proliferation 0.22
Growth differentiation factor 1, Gdf1_predicted 0.25
EST, Affymetrix Identifier 1391428_at 0.25
Neogenin (Neo1) Protein phosphorylation; cell motility; cell adhesion 0.29
Similar to RIKEN cDNA 9330161F08, LOC362899 3.0
Reversion-induced LIM gene (Ril) Intracellular signalling; actin cytoskeleton organisation 4.5
Brain and kidney protein, LOC497736 (Bk) Transport; cAMP-mediated signalling 4.6
EST; affymetrix identifier 1373642_at 5.1
EST; affymetrix identifier 1377065_at 5.8
Ankyrin 3, epithelial isoform g, RGD:620157 (Ank3) Signal transduction; positive regulation of apoptosis 12.2
Similar to synaptopodin-2, LOC499702 17.1
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) MAPK activation; cell motility; cell adhesion 65.1
  • Expression levels in the three metastasising cell populations from tissue culture and primary tumours were divided by expression levels in the non-metastasising cell population from tissue culture and primary tumours, producing six relative expression levels for each tested gene. To produce this list of 23 candidate genes, we selected genes that have the six relative expression levels of >2.5 or <0.4; also, the relevant difference in the expression had to be significant (P<0.05). Given are the averages of the six individual relative expression levels for each candidate gene