Table 1.

Functions of SUN and KASH proteins

SUN proteins Characteristics and function(s) at the INM References
Mammals
   Sun1 Telomere attachment in meiosis and gametogenesis; nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins (Crisp et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2007; Haque et al., 2006; Padmakumar et al., 2005)
   Sun2 Nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins (Crisp et al., 2006; Hodzic et al., 2004)
   Sun3 Testis specific; ER localized; unknown function (Crisp et al., 2006)
   Spag4 Testis specific; not at nuclear envelope; unknown function (Shao et al., 1999)
C. elegans
   UNC-84 Nuclear positioning; recruit ANC-1 and UNC-83 in somatic cells (Malone et al., 1999; Starr and Han, 2002; Starr et al., 2001)
   SUN-1 (matefin) Centrosome attachment; apoptosis; chromosome pairing in meiosis; recruit ZYG-12 and CED-4 (Malone et al., 2003; Penkner et al., 2007; Tzur et al., 2006a)
D. melanogaster
   Klaroid Recruit Klarsicht in eye disc; nuclear migration in eye disc (Kracklauer et al., 2007)
   CG6589 Unknown (Kracklauer et al., 2007)
Dictyostelium
   Sun-1 Centrosome attachment; genome stability (Xiong et al., 2008)
S. pombe
   Sad1 Spindle architecture; recruit Kms1 (Chikashige et al., 2006; Hagan and Yanmagida, 1995)
S. cerevisiae
   Mps3 SPB duplication; attachment of telomeres to nuclear envelope; recruit Csm4 (Conrad et al., 2008; Jaspersen et al., 2006; Koszul et al., 2008)
KASH proteins Known function(s) at the ONM References
Mammals
   Syne-1 (Nesprin-1) Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 2007b)
   Syne-2 (Nesprin-2) Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2007b; Zhen et al., 2002)
   Nesprin-3 Intermediate-filament interactions with the nucleus (Ketema et al., 2007; Wilhelmsen et al., 2005)
   Nesprin-4 Unknown; endocrine specific (Crisp and Burke, 2008)
C. elegans
   ANC-1 Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments (Starr and Han, 2002)
   UNC-83 Nuclear migration (McGee et al., 2006; Starr et al., 2001)
   ZYG-12 Attachment of centrosomes to nuclei (Malone et al., 2003)
D. melanogaster
   Klarsicht Nuclear migration and centrosome attachment (Mosley-Bishop et al., 1999; Patterson et al., 2004)
   MSP-300 Muscle development (?); nuclear anchorage (?) (Rosenberg-Hasson et al., 1996; Technau and Roth, 2008; Xie and Fischer, 2008; Yu et al., 2006)
S. pombe
   Kms1 Meiotic chromosome movement and pairing via dynein (Chikashige et al., 2006; Miki et al., 2004)
   Kms2 Meiotic and mitotic chromosome movement (Chikashige et al., 2006; King et al., 2008; Miki et al., 2004)
S. cerevisiae
   Csm4 Meiotic actin-driven telomere movements and pairing (Conrad et al., 2008; Koszul et al., 2008)