Table 1.

The degree of adhesion and RhoA signaling can uniquely identify the mode of 3D migration

Mode of 3D migrationCell shapeMode switchingAdhesionRhoA signalingPolarized signalingRho and Rac cross-talkReferences
LobopodialElongatedSwitch to lamellipodiaHighRequiredNoUnknown(Petrie et al., 2012)
LamellipodialElongatedSwitch to lobopodia (normal cells) and amoeboid (cancer cells)HighNot requiredYesIn mesenchymal cancer cells Rac1 activity suppresses RhoA and amoeboid migration. Rac1 activity does not prevent normal fibroblasts from switching to lobopodial motility.(Petrie et al., 2012; Sahai and Marshall, 2003; Sanz-Moreno et al., 2008)
Amoeboid (cancer cells)aRoundSwitch to lamellipodial migrationLowRequiredPtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is not polarizedActivating Rac1 or inactivating RhoA will switch cells to lamellipodial movement.(Lorentzen et al., 2011; Sahai and Marshall, 2003; Wolf et al., 2003)
FilopodialRound or elongatedCan be found with lamellipodia, lobopodia, and blebsHigh or LowNot requiredNoNo(Nalbant et al., 2004; Svitkina et al., 2003; Tomasek et al., 1982; Trinkaus, 1973)
  • a This term can refer to least three distinct modes of migration: small-bleb-based migration, hemispherical-bleb-based migration and migration with an actin-enriched leading edge. How these parameters compare amongst these different types of cancer cell migration is unclear.