Table 1.

Comparison of lipid accumulation from simple prokaryotes to mammals

TaxaLipid typesLong-term lipid storage cell or organLipid droplet proteinsTag synthesisLipolysisLeptin
BacteriaPolymeric lipids (PHA and PHV); TAG (in Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus and Dietzia)Unicellular (in response to starvation)PhasinsPHA synthase; WS/DGATHSL and MGL; do not have ATGLNone
Yeast50% TAG; 50% SEUnicellular (in response to starvation)No PAT proteins except for some species (e.g. M. anisopliae)Acyl-CoA dependent (Dga1); acyl-CoA independent (Lro1)MGL; do not have ATGL/HSLNone
WormsHigh TAG, low SESpecialized cells (i.e. intestinal, skin and hepato-pancreatic cells)No PAT proteins; other lipid proteins exist (e.g. seipin, leipin and caveolin).Y53G8B.2ATGL and HSL; do not have MGLNone
FliesHigh TAG, low SEFat bodyPAT proteins (Lsd-1 and Lsd-2)MidwayATGL and HSL; do not have MGLUpd2 (?)
FishTAG and CE (in adipocytes)Adipose organ and liverPAT proteins; CIDE domain family proteinsDGAT1 and DGAT2ATGL, HSL and MGLExpressed in fat and various other tissues
AmphibiaTAG and CE (in adipocytes)Adipose organ and liverPAT proteins; CIDE domain family proteinsDGAT1 and DGAT2ATGL, HSL and MGLExpressed in fat and various other tissues
ReptilesTAG and CE (in adipocytes)Adipose organ and liverPAT proteins; CIDE domain family proteinsDGAT1 and DGAT2ATGL, HSL and MGLExpressed in fat and various other tissues
MammalsTAG and CE (in adipocytes); mostly SE (in macrophages)Adipose organ; subcutaneous adipose tissuePAT proteins; CIDE domain family proteinsDGAT1 and DGAT2ATGL, HSL and MGLExpressed predominantly in white adipose tissue
  • For references see Boxes 1 and 2. PHA, polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHV, polyhydroxyvalerates; SE, sterol esters; CE, cholesterol esters; TAG, triacylglycerol.